Python Classes and Objects

Python Classes and Objects

Python is an object-oriented programming language, which means it organizes code into modular, self-contained units called objects. These objects can contain both data (also known as attributes) and behavior (also known as methods) relevant to their purpose. In Python, objects are created from classes, which define the structure and behavior of those objects. In this article, we’ll explore the basics of Python classes and objects.

Defining a Class

To define a class in Python, we use the class keyword, followed by the name of the class and a colon :

class MyClass:

This creates an empty class called MyClass. The pass keyword indicates that there is no code yet for this class.

To add attributes to a class, we can do so inside the class definition using the __init__ method. This method is called when an object is created from the class and allows us to set initial values for its attributes. For example:

class MyClass:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name
        self.age = age

Here, we’ve defined a class called MyClass with two attributes: name and age. The __init__ method takes two parameters: self (which refers to the object being created) and the initial values for name and age. Inside the method, we set the object’s name and age attributes to the values passed in.

Creating Objects

Once we’ve defined a class, we can create objects from it. To do this, we call the class as if it were a function, passing in any necessary arguments:

# Create a new object of class MyClass
my_object = MyClass("John Doe", 25)

This creates a new object of type MyClass with the name “John Doe” and age 25.

Accessing Object Attributes

To access an object’s attributes, we can use the dot notation:

print(  # "John Doe"
print(my_object.age)  # 25

Adding Methods to a Class

In addition to attributes, classes can have methods, which are functions that can be performed by objects of that class. Methods can be added to a class using the same syntax as functions:

class MyClass:
    def __init__(self, name, age): = name
        self.age = age
    def say_hello(self):
        print(f"Hello, my name is {} and I am {self.age} years old.")

Here, we’ve added a method called say_hello to our MyClass class. This method takes no arguments besides self and prints a message with the object’s name and age.

To call a method on an object, we use the dot notation:

my_object = MyClass("John Doe", 25)
my_object.say_hello()  # "Hello, my name is John Doe and I am 25 years old."


One of the key features of object-oriented programming is inheritance. Inheritance allows us to create new classes based on existing classes, inheriting their attributes and methods while also adding new ones or modifying existing ones. In Python, we can inherit from a superclass by specifying it in the new class definition:

class MySubclass(MyClass):
    def __init__(self, name, age, occupation):
        super().__init__(name, age)
        self.occupation = occupation
    def say_hello(self):
        print(f"Hello, my name is {}, I am {self.age} years old, and I work as a {self.occupation}.")

Here, we’ve defined a subclass called MySubclass based on the MyClass superclass. We’ve added a new attribute called occupation and updated the say_hello method to include it in the output. The super().__init__ method is used to call the MyClass constructor and set the name and age attributes.

We can create objects of MySubclass in the same way as MyClass:

my_subobject = MySubclass("Jane Smith", 30, "web developer")
my_subobject.say_hello()  # "Hello, my name is Jane Smith, I am 30 years old, and I work as a web developer."


Classes and objects are key features of object-oriented programming, allowing for modular and reusable code. In Python, we can easily define classes using the class keyword and create objects from them. We can also add attributes and methods to our classes, and use inheritance to create new classes based on existing ones. By mastering these concepts, you’ll have a solid foundation for writing powerful and flexible Python code.

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