Develop SQL and Relational Database Knowledge

Develop SQL and Relational Database Knowledge

SQL is the standard language used to manage and manipulate data in Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS). In this article, we will cover the fundamental concepts of SQL and relational databases, including how to design and normalize a database, how to create and modify tables, and how to perform basic queries and operations.

What is a Relational Database?

A Relational Database is a collection of tables that are related to each other in some way. Each table consists of rows and columns, and each column contains a specific type of data, such as text or numbers. Tables in a relational database are related through a common field or attribute. For example, a customer table and an order table may be related through the customer ID field.

The main advantage of a relational database is that it allows us to store and retrieve data efficiently, and to query and analyze the data easily using SQL.

Designing a Relational Database

The first step in designing a relational database is to determine the entities or objects that need to be represented in the database. For example, if we are designing a database for a bookstore, we may have entities such as customers, books, authors, and orders. Each entity will be represented by a table in the database, with each row representing a specific instance of that entity.

Once we have identified the entities, we need to determine the attributes or properties of each entity. For example, a book entity may have attributes such as title, author, publisher, and ISBN. Each attribute will be represented by a column in the table.

Next, we need to identify the relationships between the entities. For example, a customer may place multiple orders, and each order may contain multiple books. We represent these relationships through the use of foreign keys, which are attributes in one table that refer to the primary key in another table.


In order to maintain data consistency and minimize redundancy, we need to normalize our database. Normalization is the process of organizing the data in a database so that it is efficient, scalable, and easy to maintain.

There are several levels of normalization, known as first normal form (1NF), second normal form (2NF), and third normal form (3NF). In general, a database should be normalized to at least 3NF, although there may be cases where denormalization is necessary for performance reasons.

Creating and Modifying Tables

To create a table in SQL, we use the CREATE TABLE statement. We specify the name of the table, and the names and data types of the columns.

CREATE TABLE customers (
  customer_id INT PRIMARY KEY,
  first_name VARCHAR(50),
  last_name VARCHAR(50),
  email VARCHAR(255)

To modify an existing table, we use the ALTER TABLE statement. We can add or remove columns, modify data types, and add constraints such as primary keys and foreign keys.

ALTER TABLE customers

Basic SQL Queries

The main purpose of SQL is to query and manipulate data in a relational database. Here are some basic SQL queries:

  • SELECT: retrieves data from one or more tables
  • INSERT: inserts new data into a table
  • UPDATE: modifies existing data in a table
  • DELETE: deletes data from a table

Here is an example of a SELECT statement:

SELECT * FROM customers
WHERE last_name = 'Smith';

This query retrieves all the customer data where the last name is Smith.


SQL and Relational databases are a fundamental part of modern software development. Understanding these concepts is essential for creating efficient and scalable applications. In this article, we covered the basics of designing and normalizing a database, creating and modifying tables, and performing basic SQL queries. With this knowledge, you can start working with databases and building complex applications.

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